Higher NeedsThere is nothing mystical about this category. 'Spirit' is meant in the sense of motivation and gumption. For, without the human will to survive, a CELSS is essentially pointless.
Love and belongingAfter physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. Humans need to love and be loved Ã¢â¬â both sexually and non-sexually Ã¢â¬â by others. Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.
EsteemAll humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes precedence over the "lower" version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, and helplessness.
Self-actualizationThis level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be. Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions.
Self-TranscendenceThe self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher goal outside oneself, in altruism and spirituality.