Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of psychological growth in humans.

Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization" and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.

Clayton Alderfer further developed Maslow's hierarchy of needs by categorizing the hierarchy into his ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness and Growth). The existence group is concerned with providing the basic material existence requirements of humans. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs is those of relatedness – the desire people have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs: an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow's esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization.

Alderfer categorized the lower order needs (Physiological and Safety) into the Existence category. CELSS.net is primarily concerned with perpetuating human existence, so is focused mainly on these needs. Alderfer fit Maslow's interpersonal love and esteem needs into the Relatedness category. The Growth category contained the self-actualization and self-esteem needs. Both of these latter categories are lumped in Spirit.

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are the most important and must be the highest priority.

Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Warmth and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements.

Safety needs

With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety – due to violence, natural disaster, etc. – people may become psychologically unstable.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Friday 06 of March, 2015 23:48:33 CST by admin.